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The English word potato comes from Spanish patata (the name used in Spain). The Royal Spanish Academy says the Spanish word is a hybrid of the Taíno batata ('sweet potato') and the Quechua papa ('potato').[13][14] The name originally referred to the sweet potato although the two plants are not closely related. The 16th-century English herbalist John Gerard referred to sweet potatoes as common potatoes, and used the terms bastard potatoes and Virginia potatoes for the species we now call potato.[15] In many of the chronicles detailing agriculture and plants, no distinction is made between the two.[16] Potatoes are occasionally referred to as Irish potatoes or white potatoes in the United States, to distinguish them from sweet potatoes.[15]
The name spud for a small potato comes from the digging of soil (or a hole) prior to the planting of potatoes. The word has an unknown origin and was originally (c. 1440) used as a term for a short knife or dagger, probably related to the Latin spad- a word root meaning "sword"; compare Spanish espada, English "spade", and spadroon. It subsequently transferred over to a variety of digging tools. Around 1845, the name transferred to the tuber itself, the first record of this usage being in New Zealand English.[17] The origin of the word spud has erroneously been attributed to an 18th-century activist group dedicated to keeping the potato out of Britain, calling itself The Society for the Prevention of Unwholesome Diet (S.P.U.D.). It was Mario Pei's 1949 The Story of Language that can be blamed for the word's false origin. Pei writes, "the potato, for its part, was in disrepute some centuries ago. Some Englishmen who did not fancy potatoes formed a Society for the Prevention of Unwholesome Diet. The initials of the main words in this title gave rise to spud." Like most other pre-20th century acronymic origins, this is false, and there is no evidence that a Society for the Prevention of Unwholesome Diet ever existed.
Potato plants are herbaceous perennials that grow about 60 cm (24 in) high, depending on variety, with the leaves dying back after flowering, fruiting and tuber formation. They bear white, pink, red, blue, or purple flowers with yellow stamens. In general, the tubers of varieties with white flowers have white skins, while those of varieties with colored flowers tend to have pinkish skins.[19] Potatoes are mostly cross-pollinated by insects such as bumblebees, which carry pollen from other potato plants, though a substantial amount of self-fertilizing occurs as well. Tubers form in response to decreasing day length, although this tendency has been minimized in commercial varieties.[20]
After flowering, potato plants produce small green fruits that resemble green cherry tomatoes, each containing about 300 seeds. Like all parts of the plant except the tubers, the fruit contain the toxic alkaloid solanine and are therefore unsuitable for consumption. All new potato varieties are grown from seeds, also called "true potato seed", "TPS" or "botanical seed" to distinguish it from seed tubers. New varieties grown from seed can be propagated vegetatively by planting tubers, pieces of tubers cut to include at least one or two eyes, or cuttings, a practice used in greenhouses for the production of healthy seed tubers. Plants propagated from tubers are clones of the parent, whereas those propagated from seed produce a range of different varieties.
There are about 5,000 potato varieties worldwide. Three thousand of them are found in the Andes alone, mainly in Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, Chile, and Colombia. They belong to eight or nine species, depending on the taxonomic school. Apart from the 5,000 cultivated varieties, there are about 200 wild species and subspecies, many of which can be cross-bred with cultivated varieties. Cross-breeding has been done repeatedly to transfer resistances to certain pests and diseases from the gene pool of wild species to the gene pool of cultivated potato species. Genetically modified varieties have met public resistance in the United States and in the European Union.[21][22]
The major species grown worldwide is Solanum tuberosum (a tetraploid with 48 chromosomes), and modern varieties of this species are the most widely cultivated. There are also four diploid species (with 24 chromosomes): S. stenotomum, S. phureja, S. goniocalyx, and S. ajanhuiri. There are two triploid species (with 36 chromosomes): S. chaucha and S. juzepczukii. There is one pentaploid cultivated species (with 60 chromosomes): S. curtilobum. There are two major subspecies of Solanum tuberosum: andigena, or Andean; and tuberosum, or Chilean.[23] The Andean potato is adapted to the short-day conditions prevalent in the mountainous equatorial and tropical regions where it originated; the Chilean potato, however, native to the Chiloé Archipelago, is adapted to the long-day conditions prevalent in the higher latitude region of southern Chile.[24]
The International Potato Center, based in Lima, Peru, holds an ISO-accredited collection of potato germplasm.[25] The international Potato Genome Sequencing Consortium announced in 2009 that they had achieved a draft sequence of the potato genome.[26] The potato genome contains 12 chromosomes and 860 million base pairs, making it a medium-sized plant genome.[27] More than 99 percent of all current varieties) of potatoes currently grown are direct descendants of a subspecies that once grew in the lowlands of south-central Chile.[28] Nonetheless, genetic testing of the wide variety of cultivars and wild species affirms that all potato subspecies derive from a single origin) in the area of present-day southern Peru and extreme Northwestern Bolivia (from a species in the Solanum brevicaule complex).[5][6][7] The wild Crop Wild Relatives Prebreeding project encourages the use of wild relatives in breeding programs. Enriching and preserving the gene bank collection to make potatoes adaptive to diverse environmental conditions is seen as a pressing issue due to climate change.[29]
Most modern potatoes grown in North America arrived through European settlement and not independently from the South American sources, although at least one wild potato species, Solanum fendleri, naturally ranges from Peru into Texas, where it is used in breeding for resistance to a nematode species that attacks cultivated potatoes. A secondary center of genetic variability of the potato is Mexico, where important wild species that have been used extensively in modern breeding are found, such as the hexaploid Solanum demissum, as a source of resistance to the devastating late blight disease.[30] Another relative native to this region, Solanum bulbocastanum, has been used to genetically engineer the potato to resist potato blight.[31]
Potatoes yield abundantly with little effort, and adapt readily to diverse climates as long as the climate is cool and moist enough for the plants to gather sufficient water from the soil to form the starchy tubers. Potatoes do not keep very well in storage and are vulnerable to moulds that feed on the stored tubers and quickly turn them rotten, whereas crops such as grain can be stored for several years with a low risk of rot. The food energy yield of potatoes – about 9.2 million calories per acre (95 gigajoules per hectare) – is higher than that of maize (7.5 million), rice (7.4 million), wheat (3 million), or soybean (2.8 million).[32]
There are close to 4,000 varieties of potato including common commercial varieties, each of which has specific agricultural or culinary attributes.[33] Around 80 varieties are commercially available in the UK.[34] In general, varieties are categorized into a few main groups based on common characteristics, such as russet potatoes (rough brown skin), red potatoes, white potatoes, yellow potatoes (also called Yukon potatoes) and purple potatoes.
For culinary purposes, varieties are often differentiated by their waxiness: floury or mealy baking potatoes have more starch (20–22%) than waxy boiling potatoes (16–18%). The distinction may also arise from variation in the comparative ratio of two different potato starch compounds: amylose and amylopectin. Amylose, a long-chain molecule, diffuses from the starch granule when cooked in water, and lends itself to dishes where the potato is mashed. Varieties that contain a slightly higher amylopectin content, which is a highly branched molecule, help the potato retain its shape after being boiled in water.[35] Potatoes that are good for making potato chips or potato crisps are sometimes called "chipping potatoes", which means they meet the basic requirements of similar varietal characteristics, being firm, fairly clean, and fairly well-shaped.[36]
The European Cultivated Potato Database (ECPD) is an online collaborative database of potato variety descriptions that is updated and maintained by the Scottish Agricultural Science Agency within the framework of the European Cooperative Programme for Crop Genetic Resources Networks (ECP/GR)—which is run by the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI).[37]


Dozens of potato cultivars have been selectively bred specifically for their skin or, more commonly, flesh color, including gold, red, and blue varieties[38] that contain varying amounts of phytochemicals, including carotenoids for gold/yellow or polyphenols for red or blue cultivars.[39] Carotenoid compounds include provitamin A alpha-carotene and beta-carotene, which are converted to the essential nutrient, vitamin A, during digestion. Anthocyanins mainly responsible for red or blue pigmentation in potato cultivars do not have nutritional significance, but are used for visual variety and consumer appeal.[40] Recently, as of 2010, potatoes have also been bioengineered specifically for these pigmentation traits.[41]

Genetically engineered potatoes

Genetic research has produced several genetically modified varieties. 'New Leaf', owned by Monsanto Company, incorporates genes from Bacillus thuringiensis, which confers resistance to the Colorado potato beetle; 'New Leaf Plus' and 'New Leaf Y', approved by US regulatory agencies during the 1990s, also include resistance to viruses. McDonald's, Burger King, Frito-Lay, and Procter & Gamble announced they would not use genetically modified potatoes, and Monsanto published its intent to discontinue the line in March 2001.[42]
Waxy potato varieties produce two main kinds of potato starch, amylose and amylopectin, the latter of which is most industrially useful. BASF developed the Amflora potato, which was modified to express antisense RNA to inactivate the gene for granule bound starch synthase, an enzyme which catalyzes the formation of amylose.[43] Amflora potatoes therefore produce starch consisting almost entirely of amylopectin, and are thus more useful for the starch industry. In 2010, the European Commission cleared the way for 'Amflora' to be grown in the European Union for industrial purposes only—not for food. Nevertheless, under EU rules, individual countries have the right to decide whether they will allow this potato to be grown on their territory. Commercial planting of 'Amflora' was expected in the Czech Republic and Germany in the spring of 2010, and Sweden and the Netherlands in subsequent years.[44] Another GM potato variety developed by BASF is 'Fortuna' which was made resistant to late blight by adding two resistance genes, blb1 and blb2, which originate from the Mexican wild potato Solanum bulbocastanum.[45][46] In October 2011 BASF requested cultivation and marketing approval as a feed and food from the EFSA. In 2012, GMO development in Europe was stopped by BASF.[47][48]
In November 2014, the USDA approved a genetically modified potato developed by J.R. Simplot Company, which contains genetic modifications that prevent bruising and produce less acrylamide when fried than conventional potatoes; the modifications do not cause new proteins to be made, but rather prevent proteins from being made via RNA interference.[49][50][51]


The potato was first domesticated in the region of modern-day southern Peru and northwestern Bolivia[5] between 8000 and 5000 BC.[6] It has since spread around the world and become a staple crop in many countries.
The earliest archaeologically verified potato tuber remains have been found at the coastal site of Ancon) (central Peru), dating to 2500 BC.[52][53] The most widely cultivated variety, Solanum tuberosum tuberosum, is indigenous to the Chiloé Archipelago, and has been cultivated by the local indigenous people since before the Spanish conquest.[24][54]
According to conservative estimates, the introduction of the potato was responsible for a quarter of the growth in Old World population and urbanization between 1700 and 1900.[55] In the Altiplano, potatoes provided the principal energy source for the Inca civilization, its predecessors, and its Spanish successor. Following the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire, the Spanish introduced the potato to Europe in the second half of the 16th century, part of the Columbian exchange. The staple was subsequently conveyed by European mariners to territories and ports throughout the world. The potato was slow to be adopted by European farmers, but soon enough it became an important food staple and field crop that played a major role in the European 19th century population boom.[7] However, lack of genetic diversity, due to the very limited number of varieties initially introduced, left the crop vulnerable to disease. In 1845, a plant disease known as late blight, caused by the fungus-like oomycete Phytophthora infestans, spread rapidly through the poorer communities of western Ireland as well as parts of the Scottish Highlands, resulting in the crop failures that led to the Great Irish Famine.[30] Thousands of varieties still persist in the Andes however, where over 100 cultivars might be found in a single valley, and a dozen or more might be maintained by a single agricultural household.[56]
In 2018, world production of potatoes was 368 million tonnes, led by China with 27% of the total (table). Other major producers were India, Russia, Ukraine and the United States. It remains an essential crop in Europe (especially northern and eastern Europe), where per capita production is still the highest in the world, but the most rapid expansion over the past few decades has occurred in southern and eastern Asia.[8][57]


A raw potato is 79% water, 17% carbohydrates (88% is starch), 2% protein, and contains negligible fat (see table). In an amount measuring 100 grams (3.5 oz), raw potato provides 322 kilojoules (77 kilocalories) of energy and is a rich source of vitamin B6 and vitamin C (23% and 24% of the Daily Value, respectively), with no other vitamins or minerals in significant amount (see table). The potato is rarely eaten raw because raw potato starch is poorly digested by humans.[58] When a potato is baked, its contents of vitamin B6 and vitamin C decline notably, while there is little significant change in the amount of other nutrients.[59]
Potatoes are often broadly classified as having a high glycemic index (GI) and so are often excluded from the diets of individuals trying to follow a low-GI diet. The GI of potatoes can vary considerably depending on the cultivar or cultivar category (such as "red", russet, "white", or King Edward), growing conditions and storage, preparation methods (by cooking method, whether it is eaten hot or cold, whether it is mashed or cubed or consumed whole), and accompanying foods consumed (especially the addition of various high-fat or high-protein toppings).[60] In particular, consuming reheated or cooled potatoes that were previously cooked may yield a lower GI effect.[60]
In the UK, potatoes are not considered by the National Health Service (NHS) as counting or contributing towards the recommended daily five portions of fruit and vegetables, the 5-A-Day program.[61]

Comparison to other staple foods

This table shows the nutrient content of potatoes next to other major staple foods, each one measured in its respective raw state, even though staple foods are not commonly eaten raw and are usually sprouted or cooked before eating. In sprouted and cooked form, the relative nutritional and anti-nutritional contents of each of these grains (or other foods) may be different from the values in this table. Each nutrient (every row) has the highest number highlighted to show the staple food with the greatest amount in a 100-gram raw portion.
Potatoes contain toxic compounds known as glycoalkaloids, of which the most prevalent are solanine and chaconine. Solanine is found in other plants in the same family, Solanaceae, which includes such plants as deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), henbane (Hyoscyamus niger) and tobacco (Nicotiana spp.), as well as the food plants eggplant and tomato. These compounds, which protect the potato plant from its predators, are generally concentrated in its leaves, flowers, sprouts, and fruits (in contrast to the tubers).[63] In a summary of several studies, the glycoalkaloid content was highest in the flowers and sprouts and lowest in the tuber flesh. (The glycoalkaloid content was, in order from highest to lowest: flowers, sprouts, leaves, skin[clarification needed], roots, berries, peel [skin plus outer cortex of tuber flesh], stems, and tuber flesh).[11]
Exposure to light, physical damage, and age increase glycoalkaloid content within the tuber.[12] Cooking at high temperatures—over 170 °C (338 °F)—partly destroys these compounds. The concentration of glycoalkaloids in wild potatoes is sufficient to produce toxic effects in humans. Glycoalkaloid poisoning may cause headaches, diarrhea, cramps, and, in severe cases, coma and death. However, poisoning from cultivated potato varieties is very rare. Light exposure causes greening from chlorophyll synthesis, giving a visual clue as to which areas of the tuber may have become more toxic. However, this does not provide a definitive guide, as greening and glycoalkaloid accumulation can occur independently of each other.
Different potato varieties contain different levels of glycoalkaloids. The Lenape) variety was released in 1967 but was withdrawn in 1970 as it contained high levels of glycoalkaloids.[64] Since then, breeders developing new varieties test for this, and sometimes have to discard an otherwise promising cultivar. Breeders try to keep glycoalkaloid levels below 200 mg/kg (200 ppmw). However, when these commercial varieties turn green, they can still approach solanine concentrations of 1000 mg/kg (1000 ppmw). In normal potatoes, analysis has shown solanine levels may be as little as 3.5% of the breeders' maximum, with 7–187 mg/kg being found.[65] While a normal potato tuber has 12–20 mg/kg of glycoalkaloid content, a green potato tuber contains 250–280 mg/kg and its skin has 1500–2200 mg/kg.
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Using Sounds as Dangerous Weapons – DEF CON 27

Interesting aspect to consider regarding the Internet of Things (IoT). Makes me wonder about the hacking of early warning systems, emergency management network systems and other devices capable of heterodyne, pulse train and mind control operations infrastructure implemented throughout the U.S. Jurisdiction and almost work now with systems implemented almost every 30 miles or so roughly.
Transcript: thank you for making it this far
this is sound effects for acoustic cyber
weapons with mathletes okay yes this is
sound effects exploring acoustics on
weapons my name is Monty under security
research for PwC honey some security
practice almost like on PhD student at
University College London understand
where this one comes from prior to
joining Peter
was been in the UK for a few years
previously spoken at they've got another
sake disclaimers before we get started
that this work was undertaken a depart
my PhD research at UCL I wouldn't have
been possible without my supervisors to
cover those for this project
professor Shane Johnson a professor
comedian a diversifier
what you're going to see here the
presented for educational purposes only
and you'll also notice throughout this
talk that I mentioned words like caviar
and possibly potentially quite a lot
that's confer two reasons the first is
nuns of Cana spreads fear uncertainty
and doubt topic in this book but also
because this is really early first aid
research in an area of where's often
really blurred line between correlation
and conversation so that's why those
caveats are there so why this why this
subject us a couple years ago and
they've gone on it's all good see no
evil hear no evil which is about using -
messing with drones and what most air
gaps that have attained as a result of
that kind of got really interested in an
ultrasound the infrasound
non-conventional used to sound gently so
why should you care about this talk and
it's topic potentially some parts of
attack which we have consoling spectacle
experimentation on its increasing attack
surface as well and it builds on
previous work around malware physical
acoustic on Germany and digital physical
crossover attacks so background probably
caught one of the babies one of the
early examples is digital physical
mother Stuxnet obviously in 2010 also
things like mirror and the ONC book met
recently some work that was done on
things like MRI machines how many times
will pre the purpose of my way
in physical case so the configure web in
2008 affected a hospital Griffin as the
one Accord Islamic state have been fun
abilities founded medical advancements
on pacemakers in chip in consciousness
was they had various fun abilities in
vehicles as well as potentially must
allow an attacker to take control of the
potentially cause harm but typically
with that kind of research there's an
indirect relationship between the attack
the effect and the potential harm was
caused to some extent or my research
focuses on is try to take out one of
those steps and instead looking at
malware or attacks that can directly
affect human beings either
psychologically or physically as almost
are the kind of things that fall under
that bracket would be chemicals as
reported mm or name or attackers who
uploaded a flashing gifts to the neck
ellipses fall forward and those gives
life impact consistently those going to
produce photosensitive epileptic
seizures and among people had seizures
similarly with many and others in 2013
an admiral image may in 2016
the hacking spot levels and specifically
they can make those flash indicating
hats consistent with photosensitive
epileptic seizures
more recently recent floods in 2017 in
their kana phone on during research on
privacy vulnerabilities found they could
attack an oil tea in college and cause
it destroy human knee
so if you can serve as a weapon this is
a marginal above this is a very
simplistic view of how long you should
be exposed to the sound certain levels
now this uses that suppose as girls is
another than misunderstood measure of
sound because it's not an absolute
measure it's a relative measure depends
how far away you're on the source of the
sound you can see when you get up to
something like 115 decibels really only
be exposed to it for around 30 seconds
before either temporary or permanent
harp stops to the curve and another job
again the mine just shows you kind of
where some of these other categories in
terms of the effects that they can
happen so stop it
started with
longer chains were possibly damaging us
how to get to get enough oil to the
check taking of
and pressure cookers pain 200 decibels
potentially could be instant death and
then the loudest sound to humanity is
the windows a to be stopped
okay so I'm acoustics at home and ascent
abilities or can be here so you can be
heard sense ultrasounding infrasound for
and traditionally they're defined as big
sound or below human thresholds of
hearing traditionally that threshold
to helps to 20 kilobytes however it's a
bit of a misconception as we'll see you
can't kind of result the trailer coupler
point set thresholds vary what it
depends a lot from person to person for
frequencies you are able to hear at what
stage in your life as well in this tool
if you see HSN high frequency noise that
means between 17 to 21 kilohertz or from
your ultrasound just of children sound
and if you see elevator happening 60 to
100 Hertz the problem with them with
infrasounds than facing the definition
of a lack of a property is profit
because the mechanisms of people
understanding quiet low frequencies of
receiving quite low frequencies is not
really understood
people have reported being able to hear
sound as low as one point five Hertz and
as high 25 kilohertz and there's also
been some research that suggests that
some if we are aware of sounds even as
that's kind of consciously or
subconsciously and there is a
significant regulation individuals is to
what sounds you can hear it depends on
the podium it depends on the background
noise and of the d'Ivoire and Caribbean
sort of the walls away look for example
you may perceive something different
ways to other people so it's low
frequency sounds you may feel it Morris
corporation and anything else you may
receive harmonics which are connected
you can think about those kind of slide
in frequency and as you older ability to
hear high frequencies the clients so you
don't appeal the children are much more
likely to be able to hear high
frequencies the matters reported adverse
effects with both high and low frequency
these do come with a lot of caveats so
bear that in mind the susceptibility of
person-to-person will differ as we said
T cubed age as well
there also were calls do suggest that
high frequencies can have an adverse
effect on hearing that grew something or
threshold shift which is where your
Collinwood range will shift temporarily
at more increased volumes and amplitudes
that have been reported for
physiological changes as a result of
life amenities including things like
cardiac devices heart detection and
functional changes in cardiovascular and
central nervous systems psychologically
high frequency noise have been reported
to cause nausea fatigue headaches
tinnitus no playing irritation and
increasing amounts of concentration is
all subjective effects so that local
analysis associated temporary threshold
shifts with high ailments and insomnia
and with elevated cortisol levels and
psychologically the most common reported
effect of motion sickness is annoyance
or purification but it has also been
associated with headaches the
palpitations deterioration of
performance depressive symptoms and
distress and interestingly these effects
have been reported even a very moderate
levels of sound so you saw between 40 to
45 decibels the caveats are mentioned
with all of these adverse effects if you
go back and look at the papers the data
is often had a title it's often function
informed the questionnaire surveys after
the fact are very easily misinterpreted
we don't always know about the noise
those which is the amount of time that
someone's been exposed to these
frequencies and at what level and many
researchers deferment these effects are
not reproducible in a laboratory there's
a number of reasons one that can be the
first is that there
and restrictions quadrant a placed on
the research is exposing human subjects
to staff which they have good reason to
believe through song so in a loud
environment those letters would be
attenuated and therefore more America
was the effects that were reported in
the literature yoga Tom who is that
something might have experienced
something called amoeba so they are that
believe they're being exposed to noise
were they are being exposed to it
and it's clearly experiencing these
symptoms were the two more necessarily
related that we said there is a
significant place evidence base to
suggest that in at least the subset of
the population type of frequencies can
with some adverse effects as a result of
a lot of researchers and organizations
have developed the exposure guidelines
which are basically kind of a
despite the maximum levels in which you
should be exposed the sounds of
particular frequencies now there are
problems with these there are big
differences in the way that they're
calculated and implemented typically
they're focused solely on the workplace
they don't focus on homes or public
spaces with schools there are the basic
operations of samples and those songs of
at all claims they don't think it's been
captured in for example as I said and
hear high frequencies
much much more like was guilty our
frequencies and had of us this is a
compendium of some of these guidelines
this was compiled by an academic
community Layton you can see of course
it's all you've got the various
different frequencies now these are not
precise frequencies in the sense of a
range of frequencies from the third
octet back and then on the left you can
see the guidelines that go all the way
back from the mid sixties wants us to
tackling it's isn't necessarily an
exhaustive lives were just by looking at
this you see two things the first is
that time as you increase the frequency
the maximum exposure goes up to some
extent the second is there's a big
disparity between some of these numbers
because they're calculated in different
it's just a quick thing in waiting this
world but on any sandwich but you'll be
familiar with waiting sound waiting is a
way to order attenuate or emphasize
certain frequencies when you're doing
the measurement of sound
so a waiting is the most commonly used
if you are a sound level meter online
hardware stores quote that everyone was
probably use a waiting and as you can
see a waiting significantly
underestimates lower frequency sound
because it kind of the curve the case
where the stock and it was on the rest
later high-frequency sound okay so at
the end see waiting is another example
you can see this lesser the decay it
still does decay to some extent you've
also got said waiting which is mostly
what we use through this experiment
because it's a flat frequency response
it was attenuate for emphasis
so yeah other so with eight waiting
these can appropriative for measuring
high frequency noise because it
underestimates those higher frequencies
says it late probably much more
appropriate with low frequency noise
there are nesco I towards medical fewer
guidelines but a possible reason for
that might be that the main effects of
low frequency noise are subjective and
what are Devils but again people that
the ones that have been published the
methodology using the implement that
differs a lot so for this experiment we
used reference characterized by death
row which took into account all the
previously published and it curves
measurements of infrasound specifically
used G weighting which is nice as
tablets facility for infrasound
because we were going higher that we
didn't you see later so this is the
quiet or low frequency noise published
by about more house and as you can see
believes there was a pretty particularly
when you get to count of fifty or sixty
three votes
it's okay knock on a forty three forty
two decimals
okay accessible previous working it
sounded security research
one of the most common uses of
high-frequency noise particularly in
security research has been as a covert
communications channel their show tells
in 2014 hands Michael Curtis engine
youthful teen look at the konnikova mesh
networks and how devices can communicate
silently with each other music part
frequency noise my difficult work a
couple years ago I did a similar thing
with paraquad parties and exfiltrated
data and an interesting and kind of
finding through this research is that
many consumer devices are capable of
emitting high frequency noise even up to
kind of objects on a clever person
there's also research looking at the
disruption of
systems which use ultrasound so getting
that Beckman's will cost of that
patrones yeah others in 2016 4 Tesla
vehicles Bolton and others in 2018 of
the corrupting dates of emits a hot
discharge using high frequency and kind
of audible for Europe and there has been
a number of studies Monica are just like
tracking big things as well which are
used for a targeted marketing so some
questions I always chemists we kind of
get into that the main event of the year
the talk first is the brand
how can that I can hear some loss there
something was familiar with the brand
and if you're not familiar with it is
this kind of mythical token within
frequency that causes people to lose
control of their bowels it's named
Indiana to me and no one's been able to
quietness these critical frequencies
of the reasons that probably is that any
sound potentially if it's loud enough
parachuters for signals you're 42 by
brain and potentially
there's no code of one frequency that
would work for everybody if you're
playing sounds at that volume you've got
a bigger bigger workers basically
another one lost about as well is the
link between infrasound and the kernel
sometimes it is referred to as like the
Costa Rican seal or a frequency it often
was it has been used in things on
Florida Gators in horror movies as well
I've got Richard to a couple interesting
papers on this eternity in 2004 and
others in 2009 who looked at the
possibility looking for us out at
resonant frequencies causing people to
have hallucinations was a kind of sense
of presence in areas associated with
partner experiences as a subject that is
debated a lot in that feel that it's
worth contacting to read over and a lot
about is the US Embassy in Cuba O'Conner
but there I would direct you to a paper
what Timothy leighton spann 18 which
goes into some detail about the sounds
that were recorded in the area and the
possibility not have that big ass attack
so when it comes to kind of acoustic
weapons in general there are a lot of
misunderstandings around them and a lot
of myths as researchers have noted there
are significant practical issues
associated actually deploying them which
to a large extent applies to this
research as well so the fact that the
attackers can call something like
threshold is probably not interested so
that generally and it's really
challenging to cause kind of
correctional and targeted effects with
acoustic weapons with low frequency
that can propagate very easily spread
over mom's attention but obviously it's
got very little direction
as a result and you need to know it
might say the audio equipment to be able
to do them with high frequency to a very
low propagation it doesn't deal with
obstacles well between what you think on
location because it bounces off of
objects so again this is an issue that
so our experiment so this is kind of how
we cope with the hypothesis for this so
we said okay doing the song my
frequencies and some low frequencies
might be imperceptible to at least a
subset of the population and given them
a lot of serving levels they may be
associated with adverse effects given
that some concern equipment has been
shown that it can emit at least high
frequency as possible or even signals as
well is it possible is it feasible for
an attacker to develop that way that
could cause a targeted device to admit
these frequencies and levels exceeding
those in some of these maximum
guidelines and therefore potentially
adverse effects so I wonder what we did
we developed attacks and malware Anthony
talk to the certain devices which was
able to control the system volume and
the speak wrapper of those devices as
result plate way for containing certain
frequencies which we their mission to
the sound of a meter and
to maximum capacity levels so we use any
human subject to this experiment because
of ethical restrictions rightly we did a
full risk assessment we have various
safety proportions we will hit offenders
we as an anechoic chamber which was
talked about a bit and we're not
releasing either code of the attenti did
or the browser models that we tested
these attacks on so stories were an
attacker might need to use this and
again it's a kind of caveat equai
heavily if they were seeking to expect
that performance will try to achieve the
target it generally employees or staff
an organization or a scale targeted
harassment for certain individuals or
potentially is kind of low-grade cyber
weapons that have some physical effect
worth noting
who is in a position to execute code or
the device that more likely going to be
things that they're more interested in
doing and even when it comes to sound
there may be things that they're more
interested in doing in this attack so
they may be interested to see two
channels with that or something else so
just a description of some of the device
to be tested on the left-hand side
Atlanta Lauren a bluetooth speaker a
small speaker Lutheran headphones a
vehicle-mounted public address system
the parametric speaker kind of operation
speaker and because he isn't with the
attack vectors and whether this was kind
of promoter local this was an approach
chamber as anyone it would be in an
anechoic chamber for how are quieting
people is with
so if you haven't been a really good
convention if you get accosted to it so
basically an anechoic chamber is a
soundproof environment but it's designed
specifically to get rid of efforts so
these cotton which is on the walls of
hypoglossal which is the access codes
back and forth between them so that they
discipline essentially what this means
is you could be in this room and the
ambient noise level is below the
threshold of human hearing
so it is kind of one of the quietest
places in the world you can hear your
heart beating if you kind of move ahead
you have up your spine creaking you know
that might be more of something I should
get checked out
yes critical our man was completed on
critical is an easy conclusion also
needs to tell us of an acoustically an
anechoic chamber is an inference place
because it's now who's lost who is the
part sound of which is negative
so for windows hardware which is on
laptops we embedded these times of Great
Falls we have a really trivial C to
channel and over the mountain are
because if we get it come on to place at
a frequency here increases system
warning of the laptop to 100% play to
twenty to ten minutes and then restores
or afterwards and did exactly the same
thing our spot speaker what we use them
at home upon ability allows to control
the audio so for this to work to
practice the attack we need to either
build a network attack and exposed to
become the internet or do DNS rebinding
or something like that there was a
pointless route we used the scan for
speakers a local network anything active
stream its when from an attack of the
troll web server headphones were over in
French Canadians other Bluetooth because
they had phones
these much closer to the sound level
meter we have corporations businesses
which you really cope with the enemies
these before so these don't have a
diaphragm cone instead they have like a
cooler than a movement planner so
whatever surface you use where the
service you put them on that becomes the
corner of the schools of the south
our budgets because again these already
tops to play with these are these use
ultrasonic carrier waves at 40 kilohertz
meaning that you can use them for my
intensity directional audio sort of like
a beaver sound the one we tested didn't
have smoke capabilities but given that
it was really like a father and fairly
low cost and then it could be
directional it won't be attractive to an
attacker as like a possible Christic
weapon a vehicle mounted public address
system so this didn't have any network
compared interface needs instead of also
plays audio
it's a storage device you need physical
access to it some additional tax that
the thoughts of a didn't test the first
is using the html5 audio tag to also
play audio comes to this will involve
like a social engineering attack rather
than attacking getting a victim to visit
or website and they have the sound play
automatically this will obviously depend
on the currently set system for certain
characters work and then we also use
them an emulation of pre-existing or do
new cities would be hard something where
an attacker has access to like people I
guess your music coach or something up
or where they've kind of creating a
youtube video that they know people are
going to watch and what you do is take
the legitimate audio like with the
parent of
and then it is very oh I have to do it
without high frequency or low frequency
sound which we've done this second
nature hit so the kind of intended
effect of this is that the victim using
their headphones or speakers or whatever
would turn the sound up so that they can
hear the digital audio and then
inadvertently expose themselves to high
levels of whatever frequency is just
another administration so for
measurement we use cross one sound level
meters are these ogresses and gray this
will calibrated they're really really
expensive to buy we hired them so we
hired one for the low frequencies one
for the high frequencies
and if you ever feel like you don't have
enough excitement in your life have a
career who you and tell them
would have you sending this stuff back
and that you want accompany 20,000
pounds high post everything else in
respective sister
so we placed each device in an anechoic
chamber with all sound level meter and
then far out actor played certain
frequencies of 10 minutes we will
measure the surface temperature of each
device before and after the attack
because there was some kind of 32
evidence that some or some anecdotes to
suggest that particular higher
frequencies devices could heat up if
they were playing high frequency noises
so you said waiting for the measurement
of the only thing we did you said
waiting for measurements in 21 canals
because that's outside the range of said
waiting so we used a proprietary
hospital for that and these are the
results for high-frequency noise so
instances where the level was above
those in maximum guidelines are involved
so you can see the small speaker is 17
kilohertz and a head 517 kilohertz are
both exceeded those microscope
guidelines and the parametric speaker
did the same for 17 kilohertz 21
keynotes a particular purpose as well
now here is a mean
of that big lists of God on / actually
there was a high potency light so you
can see things like the laptop in the
fire department capable of producing
sound exceeding those might spook
ultimate source of authority of the
voices in ordinance in frequencies that
are capable of dirtiness with low
frequency noise customer story so again
a minority of devices here to the
Bluetooth speaker two of those
frequencies of small speaker all three
and the headphones are 100 Hertz now a
particular unit apart of them up a range
the this is kind of low frequency noise
this might be more audible definitely
less suitable has got a record of attack
must be debilitated by the minute
so far the results of interest for the
cooperation speaker is no good for
literacy because it vibrates so much
that it falls over so he told me over
that the chamber door the speaker's long
as for the spot speaker what we are the
Chamber's religious folks and of burning
plastic and when we kind of tested this
we found in assumption partly damaged so
this is kind of what happened in the ten
minutes this spot speaker was being
tested you can see the damage doesn't
occur not the second minute this was a
17 kilohertz of the foreign minister
some sort of critical event broke apart
of burns out and then immediately the
decibel level drops and never recovers
and would be at Liberty Fund was that we
have permanently damaged the speaker and
we had made it money able to reproduce
frequencies above five kilowatts so we
took recordings of music before we did
the test and after we did the test
talented spectrograms and on the top is
before the test and on the bottom is
after the test so this deponent effect
as well so we've kind of permanently
impaired that speaker at the time I'd
love to be able to play to you because
it's copyright of a car but it sounds
like someone singing the words
lamentable tank like that so I can't
really make a difference W ability so we
reported that the manufacturers are
really responsive and they told us that
basically Robert - addressed it to
address a sorry-looking the components
because this is kind of a key thing to
this attack part of the premise of this
as a successful attack is relying on the
fact that users will you be able to hear
so depending on the device you get more
or less audible components of wooden
ranges if you look ahead phone
this big spike to the boy is the target
frequency which was 17 kilowatts so
that's kind of an intended effect and
then you can see to the left you've got
kind of on different frequencies that
which are pretty lovable so if you're
wearing headphones and this happens you
might notice something you might not
appear to call it distortion or popping
like that but so it wouldn't be that
conversely if you look at the parametric
speaker the intended turn is still fine
but there are much higher levels of
other inaudible frequencies which means
this will become less suited for some
kind of stealthy attack so the
implications of this with the headphones
that is a significant concern because
her friends are increasing use
particularly for young people high
volumes add to some extent that device
agnostic so you kind of pop a plug it
into the laptop or phone
it might be possible for that Seneca to
be kind of incredibly prove that my wife
for instance it's only triggering sub
frequencies when headphones have
connected up so with a lot of divorce
rates to this the department should
speak up it does produce it affordable
components but in Long Beach my business
and in any case the fact that it's using
one of those ultra so they carrier
whereas in political ads are pretty
quite levels means that it could be a
public health risk with the Bluetooth
and small speakers are more difficult to
attack the Bluetooth speakers who knows
it compared with them with the spot
speakers though we can permanent damage
them with the high frequency noise
potentially that one young component
area fire hazard as well and other
models won't be possible
sometimes visibility the attacks that we
discovered were viable on our minority
of devices out of the content test that
we did is talking about one of a handful
of two to four devices for this attack
to succeed you'll remind what attacker
still no bugs or aquatic victims they're
not perceiving by the sound on their
being susceptible to the adverse effects
of that sound and for them being exposed
for long enough them time for it to have
an effect remember that our test or in
ten minutes so reason before I kind of
played a twenty kilohertz tyranny in
this room now you know a very high level
some of you would hear it and would be
affected by this one of you behavior
probably feel uncomfortable some of you
wouldn't hear you and would notice some
of you wouldn't hear it and I felt
comfortable so it's a real kind of
spectrum so
yet it's called a lot of obstacles many
times I overcome for this time to decide
to work as I said some attacks
requirement of physical or local access
as well and crucially attackers might be
interested or more interested in other
avenues so if they have quite a code
execution on a laptop for instance or
phone it's likely that there's other
stuff they're interested ok so
everyone's account measures
so she tells in 2014 I suggested a
number of variable count specials for
these kind of attacks the first is the
name in the frequency writer speakers so
many speakers have a frequency range
that goes up to 20 kilohertz or robot
which in most cases not needed depending
on what you're using them for physically
alerting users when speakers aren't used
by an app or a software program doing
some kind of filtering during processing
to remove quite low frequency noise it
is not needed with my boss specifically
some kind of emissions restriction so
that if it happens to use the speaker's
economy explicitly granted permission to
do so on the heuristic side it's very
rare and application legitimate
application we need access the body
levels we can't afford that a few
examples won't be not commuting out for
instance and there are some legitimate
uses potentially filed to sound so tune
in what messages uses ultrasound
competitions have some other plans
channels but generally speaking there's
a curtain of many legitimate use cases
that you could monitor the environment
for whatever freaking sequence of so
most consumer on sounder meters will not
go as high or low as the levels we
tested and you do need specialist to
work on that being said there are a
couple of Android apps that we used in
our pilot study just our detector and
infrasound detector which we used with a
external microphone for the end
and there is some studies that suggest
that once more friends might be okay for
occupational especially at least as long
as you can accept that there are caveats
without any limitations and you are
necessarily under the scenario result we
developed a brief consents about Windows
program this is the sound coming from
your lots of vodka for an ad pops up
another if his frequencies of a certain
level above a sec amplitude is adapted
from another open-source application we
open up what releases on github in other
the singles who are warning or is he
don't use it to evaluate if there's
actual risk damage or adverse effects to
you and more for safety reports suspense
if that's what you want to do then you
should really be speaking to a trained
professional who's got the right
equipment but the application will be
available very
its accuracy and its kind of performance
does depend a lot on the point when
you're using in the South we're using
that kind of stuff if you want to have a
play with it and see how it works then
please don't
the policy level it's really important
that I think that these guidelines
reviewed and in the some kind of
standardization I'm put in place for
these because as noted before there was
the in an ecology that methodology the
fact that they underestimated certain
frequencies because of the weighting
that's been used the fact that they are
predominantly around occupational
context in the samples very smitten
basically pat on men and in no way to
kind of give you any kind of indication
if yours outside of an occupational
context as to what sounds a kind of
tolerable for health depending on what
area of the country you go sort of
dependable area the world you're in you
might have legislation that pertains to
sound exposure whether it's low
frequency high frequency or just in
ideally your employer's
result that meant up regular checks so
the sort that this was the first stage
of research are very smooth with a very
limited number of devices with a
differential exposure time to ten
minutes without you
there's also the note that like the
smart speaker if a device is forced to
continue we play forever because you
know is that it might burn out anyway
but it might take on a certain place for
the tap so we also didn't do any human
experimentation on acceptability as to
whether humans be able to actually be
able to hear and that's just an
imitation of research in this field
because of confessing all concerns so
more research is needed on risk of high
frequency and low frequency noise that
could include like a wide range of
equipment so in addition to testing the
courses that we tested you could look at
things like my page lines for example
and it wouldn't necessarily have to be
an attack against them in much as we
kind of injecting titles into a
conversation you could look at kind of
attacks on a larger scale whether that
is something like a kind of work on
Metallica cases you know 50 laptops
Sacre's Department whether it's the
click on a big devices like our Public
Address systems on a big scale the
logistical university level covers and
challenges testing is over heat effects
like the devices would be really cool to
see if that's a that's something that's
common across a lot of speakers some
work with countermeasures so you know
one of the encouraging things about this
research is that whilst the attacks we
developed a pretty trivial there
gets around in hand and the counter
measures almost retreat
in many cases except economy encouraging
as well
obviously the ethical restrictions do
make kind of extrapolations real-world
effective pretty challenging it's
difficult to be able to say whether or
not leaders had to actually allow an
attacker to have any effect on people
because there are also many variables so
we've only really scratched the surface
it's absolute can't be done in this
field so definitely if you're kind of
interested in this field we want to kind
of chat about a bit more than thinking a
touch okay
such as the saw so it's likely that
attackers might become increasingly
interested in leveraging fun abilities
against unions having digital physical
effects certainly the attack surface for
these devices is lorikeets acquired and
potentially any device of the speaker
obviously depending on the notice solid
inventor complexity could be used with
this contactor and crucially the lack of
consensus part of a dilemma safety
guidelines is real challenge however the
simple counts measures are available
that will work and the real-world
consequences it is tackling this year to
be an asset actor so thank you very much
if you want to cater to me that's much a
handle and my email address are going to
take questions at the far end of the
arable body if you're interested in any
of this stuff there is an exhaustive
list of references an empty slot the
which color acoustic weapons ultrasound
human effects of those various other
bits and pieces as well Marcus played
with more references if you're
interested in the partnership summer
reading to recycle thank you very much
for listening content questions at the
back and a different option like and
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